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The next evolutionary step beyond this is tightly-coupled software on the same loosely-coupled (i.e., multicomputer) hardware. The goal of such a system is to create the illusion in the minds of the users that the entire network of computers is a single timesharing system, rather than a collection of distinct machines. Some authors refer to this property as thesingle-system image.Others put it slightly differently, saying that a distributed system is one that runs on a collection of networked machines but acts like avirtual uniprocessor.No matter how it is expressed, the essential idea is that the users should not have to be aware of the existence of multiple CPUs in the system. No current system fulfills this requirement entirely, but a number of candidates are on the horizon. These will be discussed later in the book.. When the message arrives at the server, the stub examines the message to see which procedure is needed, and then makes the appropriate call. If the server also supports the remote proceduresdifference, product, andquotient, the server stub might have a switch statement in it, to select the procedure to be called, depending on the first field of the message. The actual call from the stub to the server looks much like the original client call, except that the parameters are variables initialized from the incoming message, rather than constants.. The second major choice is whether to use a standard general-purpose protocol or one specifically designed for RPC. Since there are no standards in this area, using a custom RPC protocol often means designing your own (or borrowing a friend’s). System designers are split about evenly on this one.. A key issue in the design of any distributed file system is whether or not all machines (and processes) should have exactly the same view of the directory hierarchy. As an example of what we mean by this remark, consider Fig. 5-3. In Fig. 5-3(a) we show two file servers, each holding three directories and some files. In Fig. 5-3(b) we have a system in which all clients (and other machines) have the same view of the distributed file system. If the path /D/E/x is valid on one machine, it is valid on all of them.. 2. Increase the communication capacity.. The Dash protocols are based on ownership and invalidation. At every instant, each cache block has a unique owner. For UNCACHED or CLEAN blocks, the block’s home cluster is the owner. For dirty blocks, the cluster holding the one and only copy is the owner. Writing on a CLEAN block requires first finding and invalidating all existing copies. This is where the directories come in.. int* p, *q;             /* pointers */. out(“semaphore S”);. The rest of the information in the capability is ignored by the kernels and passed to the server for its own use. TheObject field is used by the server to identify the specific object in question. For example, a file server might manage thousands of files, with the object number being used to tell it which one is being operated on. In a sense, theObject field in a file capability is analogous to a UNIX i-node number.. For committed files, a less draconian method is used. Associated with every file (in the file table entry) is a counter, initialized toMAX_LIFETIME. Periodically, a daemon does an RPC with the bullet server, asking it to perform the standardage operation (see Fig. 7-5). This operation causes the bullet server to run through the file table, decrementing each counter by 1. Any file whose counter goes to 0 is destroyed and its disk, table, and cache space reclaimed.. [Картинка: any2fbimgloader203]. When the shell wants to run a program, it looks in/bin to find, say,sort. Ifsort is available for multiple architectures,sort will not be a single file, but a directory containing executable programs for each available architecture. The shell then does an RPC with the run server sending it all the available process descriptors and asking it to pick both an architecture and a specific CPU.. 16. In Fig. 8-15 the same port has a different name in different processes. What problems might this cause?. Like Amoeba and Mach, Chorus is a microkernel-based operating system for use in distributed systems. It provides binary compatibility with System V UNIX, support for real-time applications, and object-oriented programming.. Unlike in UNIX, protection in DFS uses ACLs instead of the three groups of RWX bits, at least for those files managed by Episode. Each file has an ACL telling who can access it and how. In addition, each directory has three ACLs These ACLs give access permissions for the directory itself, the files in the directory, and the directories in the directory, respectively..