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   const char* const data;.   }. As theDate extractor illustrated, you must be on guard for erroneous input. If the input produces an unexpected value, the process is skewed, and it’s difficult to recover. In addition, formatted input defaults to white space delimiters. Consider what happens when we collect the code fragments from earlier in this chapter into a single program:.. You can test whether any of these conditions have occurred by calling corresponding member functions that return a Boolean value indicating whether any of these have been set. Thegood( ) stream member function returns true if none of the other three bits are set. Theeof( ) function returns true ifeofbit is set, which happens with an attempt to read from a stream that has no more data (usually a file). Because end-of-input happens in C++ when trying to read past the end of the physical medium,failbit is also set to indicate that the “expected” data was not successfully read. Thefail( ) function returns true ifeitherfailbit orbadbit is set, andbad( ) returns true only if thebadbit is set.. class Showerr {. Taking the address of

a generated function template. class Feed {.         46.             Define a class template namedBob that takes a single type parameter. MakeBob a friend of all instances of a template class namedFriendly, and a friend of a class template namedPicky only when the type parameter ofBob andPicky are identical. GiveBob member functions that demonstrate its friendship.. public:. };. Because it allows you to discover type information from an anonymous polymorphic pointer, RTTI is ripe for misuse by the novice because RTTI may make sense before virtual functions do. For many people coming from a procedural background, it’s difficult not to organize programs into sets ofswitch statements. They could accomplish this with RTTI and thus lose the important value of polymorphism in code development and maintenance. The intent of C++ is that you use virtual functions throughout your code and that you only use RTTI when you must..     val = newval;. }.     throw DateError(“Bad string in Date ctor”);. 56.

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