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2.3.6. Reliable versus Unreliable Primitives. Atomicity is desirable because it makes programming distributed systems much easier. When any process sends a message to the group, it does not have to worry about what to do if some of them do not get it. For example, in a replicated distributed data base system, suppose that a process sends a message to all the data base machines to create a new record in the data base, and later sends a second message to update it. If some of the members miss the message creating the record, they will not be able to perform the update and the data base will become inconsistent. Life is just a lot simpler if the system guarantees that every message is delivered to all the members of the group, or if that is not possible, that it is not delivered to any, and that failure is reported back to the sender so it can take appropriate action to recover.. As an example of group communication, let us look at the ISIS system developed at Cornell (Birman, 1993; Birman and Joseph, 1987a, 1987b; and Birman and Van Renesse, 1994). ISIS is a toolkit for building distributed applications, for example, coordinating stock trading among all the brokers at a Wall Street securities firm. ISIS is not a complete operating system but rather, a set of programs that can run on top of UNIX or other existing operating systems. It is interesting to study because it has been widely described in the literature and has been used for numerous real applications. In Chap. 7 we will study group communication in Amoeba, which takes a quite different approach.. The algorithm works as follows. When a process wants to enter a critical region, it builds a message containing the name of the critical region it wants to enter, its process number, and the current time. It then sends the message to all other processes, conceptually including itself. The sending of messages is assumed to be reliable; that is, every message is acknowledged. Reliable group communication if available, can be used instead of individual messages.. Threads are an ongoing research topic. Some other results are presented in (Marsh et al., 1991; and Draves et al., 1991).. The first NFS protocol handles mounting. A client can send a path name to a server and request permission to mount that directory somewhere in its directory hierarchy. The place where it is to be mounted is not contained in the message, as the server does not care where it is to be mounted. If the path name is legal and the directory specified has been exported, the server returns afile handleto the client. The file handle contains fields uniquely identifying the file system type, the disk, the i-node number of the directory, and security information. Subsequent calls to read and write files in the mounted directory use the file handle.. The network information servers are replicated using a master/slave arrangement. To read their data, a process can use either the master or any of the copies (slaves). However, all changes must be made only to the master, which then propagates them to the slaves. There is a short interval after an update in which the data base is inconsistent.NFS Implementation. So far, so good. The trouble arises when a CPU wants to write a word that two or more CPUs have in their caches. If the word is currently in the cache of the CPU doing the write, the cache entry is updated. Whether it is or not, it is also written to the bus to update memory. All the other caches see the write (because they are snooping on the bus) and check to see if they are also holding the word being modified. If so, they invalidate their cache entries, so that after the write completes, memory is up-to-date and only one machine has the word in its cache.. Notice that this runtime system uses an update algorithm rather than an invalidation algorithm as most page-based DSM systems do. Most objects are relatively small, so sending an update message (the new value or the parameters) is often no more expensive than an invalidate message. Updating has the great advantage of allowing subsequent remote reads to occur without having to refetch the object or perform the operation remotely.. An important distinction between Amoeba and most other distributed systems is that Amoeba has no concept of a “home machine.” When a user logs in, it is to the system as a whole, not to a specific machine. Machines do not have owners. The initial shell, started upon login, runs on some arbitrary machine, but as commands are started up, in general they do not run on the same machine as the shell. Instead, the system automatically looks around for the most lightly loaded machine to run each new command on. During the course of a long terminal session, the processes that run on behalf of any one user will be spread more-or-less uniformly spread over all the machines in the system, depending on the load, of course. In this respect, Amoeba is highly location transparent.. 8. Explain what a glocal variable is.. Since Chorus threads are managed by the kernel, when one thread blocks, for example on a system call, the kernel is able to schedule and run another thread in the same process. However, it is not usually possible for two threads in the same process to execute most system calls simultaneously because the ancient UNIX code that handles the system calls is not reentrant. In most cases, the second thread is suspended transparently before starting the system call until the first one has completed.. 12. It is possible to send a message to a port group in Chorus. Does the message go to all the ports in the group, or to a randomly selected port?. 10.2.3. Synchronization. The next group of calls (see Fig. 10-11) deals with killing threads and the threads’ ability to resist. Thecancel call tries to kill a thread, but sometimes killing a thread can have devastating effects, for example, if the thread has a mutex locked at the time. For this reason, threads can arrange for attempts to kill them to be enabled or disabled in various ways, very roughly analogous to the ability of UNIX processes to catch or ignore signals instead of being terminated by them..