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3. A small amount of low-level process management and scheduling.. [Картинка: any2fbimgloader37]. 16. In Fig. 2-23 thederegister call to the binder has the unique identifier as one of the parameters. Is this really necessary? After all, the name and version are also provided, which uniquely identifies the service.. This algorithm gives us a way to provide a total ordering of all events in the system. Many other distributed algorithms need such an ordering to avoid ambiguities, so the algorithm is widely cited in the literature.. As a first approximation, when the sender gets the reply, it can just set its clock toCUTC. However, this algorithm has two problems, one major and one minor. The major problem is that time must never run backward. If the sender’s clock is fast,CUTCwill be smaller than the sender’s current value ofC.Just taking overCUTCcould cause serious problems, such as an object file compiled just after the clock change having a time earlier than the source which was modified just before the clock change.. To start with, it needs the same view of the file system, the same working directory, and the same environment variables (shell variables), if any. After these have been set up, the program can begin running. The trouble starts when the first system call, say a READ, is executed. What should the kernel do? The answer depends very much on the system architecture. If the system is diskless, with all the files located on file servers, the kernel can just send the request to the appropriate file server, the same way the home machine would have done had the process been running there. On the other hand, if the system has local disks, each with a complete file system, the request has to be forwarded back to the home machine for execution.. Finally, batching can lead to major performance gains. Transmitting a 50K file in one blast is much more efficient than sending it as 50 1K blocks.. If nothing else, it should be abundantly clear by now that hardware caching in large multiprocessors is not simple. Complex data structures must be maintained by the hardware and intricate protocols, such as those of Fig. 6-8, must be built into the cache controller or MMU. The inevitable consequence is that large multiprocessors are expensive and not in widespread use.. In contrast, in Fig. 6-12(b),P2 does a read after the write (possibly only a nanosecond after it, but still after it), and gets 0. A subsequent read gives 1. Such behavior is incorrect for a strictly consistent memory.. If certain errors occur when using the port, they are reported by sending messages to other ports whose capabilities are stored there. Threads can block when reading from a port, so a pointer to the list of blocked threads is included. It is also important to be able to find the capability for reading from the port (there can only be one), so that information is present too. If the port is a process port, the next field holds a pointer to the process it belongs to. If it is a thread port, the field holds a pointer to the kernel’s data structure for the thread, and so on. A few miscellaneous fields not described here are also needed.. The goals of the Chorus project have evolved along with the system itself. Initially, it was pure academic research, designed to explore new ideas in distributed computing based on the actor model. As time went on, it became more commercial, and the emphasis shifted. The current goals can be roughly summarized as follows:. 18. Why did Chorus extend the semantics of UNIX signals?. 10.2. THREADS. 1. A header file (e.g.,interface.h, in C terms).. Two options are provided for this propagation. For data that must be kept consistent all the time, the changes are sent out to all slaves immediately. For less critical data, the slaves are updated later. This scheme, calledskulking, allows many updates to be sent together in larger and more efficient messages..