long source; /* sender’s identity */. (a). When the ordering is incorrect, it means that a transaction that started later than the current one has managed to get in there, access the file, and commit. This situation means that the current transaction is too late, so it is aborted. In a sense, this mechanism is also optimistic, like that of Kung and Robinson, although the details are quite different. In Kung and Robinson’s method, we are hoping that concurrent transactions do not use the same files. In the timestamp method, we do not mind if concurrent transactions use the same files, as long as the lower numbered transaction always goes first.. Our final point here is that stability is also an issue that crops up. Different machines run their algorithms asynchronously from one another, so the system is rarely in equilibrium. It is possible to get into situations where neitherA norB has quite up-to-date information, and each thinks the other has a lighter load, resulting in some poor process being shuttled back and forth a repeatedly. The problem is that most algorithms that exchange information can be shown to be correct after all the information has been exchanged and everything has settled down, but little can be said about their operation while tables are still being updated. It is in these nonequilibrium situations that problems often arise.. Intuitively, what we are doing is looking for clusters that are tightly coupled (high intracluster traffic flow) but which interact little with other clusters (low intercluster traffic flow). Some of the many papers discussing the problem are (Chow and Abraham, 1982; Stone and Bokhari, 1978; and Lo, 1984).A Centralized Algorithm. While the centralized algorithm described above will do the job, it is by no means the only approach. In general, a distributed shared memory is release consistent if it obeys the following rules:. [Картинка: any2fbimgloader179]. Various optimizations are possible. For example, instead of synchronizingafter an operation, it could be done when an operation is started, as in entry consistency or lazy release consistency. The advantage here is that if a process executes an operation on a shared object repeatedly (e.g., in a loop), no broadcasts at all are sent until some other process exhibits interest in the object.. The final call,ResetGroup, is used to recover from crashes. It specifies how many members the new group must have as a minimum. If the kernel is able to establish contact with the requisite number of processes and rebuild the group, it returns the size of the new group. Otherwise, it fails. In this case, recovery is up to the user program.The Amoeba Reliable Broadcast Protocol. Furthermore, FLIP has been designed so that it can be built in hardware, for example, as part of the network interface chip. For this reason, a precise interface with the layer above it has been specified. The interface between the FLIP layer and the layer above it (which we will call the RPC layer) has nine primitives, seven for outgoing traffic and two for incoming traffic. Each one has a library procedure that invokes it. The nine calls are listed in Fig. 7-17.. 5. Messages.. The operations on condition variables aresignal, wait, andbroadcast, which are used to allow threads to block on a condition and later be awakened when another thread has caused that condition to occur.Implementation of C Threads in Mach. Amoeba and Mach have many aspects in common, but also various differences. Both have processes and threads and are based on message passing. Amoeba has reliable broadcasting as a primitive, which Mach does not, but Mach has demand paging, which Amoeba does not. In general, Amoeba is more oriented toward making a collection of distributed machines act like a single computer, whereas Mach is more oriented toward making efficient use of multiprocessors. Both are undergoing constant development and will no doubt change as time goes on.. statement, but was forcibly restrained from doing so by his colleagues.) It can be argued that having per-thread global variables use procedure calls instead of language scoping rules, like locals and globals, is an emergency measure introduced simply because most programming languages do not allow the concept to be expressed syntactically.. In this section we will review briefly some of the basic principles ofcryptography, the science of sending secret messages, and the dce requirements and assumptions in this area. let us assume that two parties, say a client and a server, wish to communicate securely over an insecure network. What this means is that even if an intruder (e.g., a wiretapper) manages to steal messages, he will not be able to understand them. Stronger yet, if the intruder tries to impersonate the client or if the intruder records legitimate messages from the client and plays them back for the server later, the server will be able to see this and reject these messages..