Here is a small selection of current sub-projects:. The installation program begins in English, but the first step allows the user to choose the language that will be used in the rest of the process. Choosing French, for example, will provide an installation entirely translated into French (and a system configured in French as a result). This choice is also used to define more relevant default choices in subsequent stages (notably the keyboard layout).. Partitioning, an indispensable step in installation, consists in dividing the available space on the hard drives (each subdivision thereof being called a“partition”) according to the data to be stored on it and the use for which the computer is intended. This step also includes choosing the filesystems to be used. All of these decisions will have an influence on performance, data security, and the administration of the server.. You can also useapt-get to download a source package and unpack it right away. It requires that the appropriatedeb-src lines be present in the /etc/apt/sources.list file, however (for further details, see Section 6.1, “Filling in the sources.list File”). These are used to list the “sources” of source packages (meaning the servers on which a group of source packages are hosted).. .. In some cases, it will be useful to add a user to a group (other than their default“main” group) in order to grant them additional permissions. For example, a user who is included in theaudio group can access audio devices (see sidebar“Peripheral access permissions”). This can be achieved with a command such asadduserusergroup.. GOING FURTHER Optimal configuration. Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 21.32 seconds. Rebuild Status : 45% complete. 184.108.40.206. Creating a Customized Boot Media. The universal character of web applications led to their proliferation. Several are often run in parallel: a webmail, a wiki, some groupware system, forums, a photo gallery, a blog, and so on. Many of those applications rely on the“LAMP” (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack. Unfortunately, many of those applications were also written without much consideration for security problems. Data coming from outside is, too often, used with little or no validation. Providing specially-crafted values can be used to subvert a call to a command so that another one is executed instead. Many
of the most obvious problems have been fixed as time has passed, but new security problems pop up regularly.. VOCABULARY Zero-day exploit. Rebuilding a Debian package starts with getting its source code. The easiest way is to use theapt-get sourcesource-package-name command. This command requires a deb-src line in the /etc/apt/sources.list file, and up-to-date index files (i.e.apt-get update). These conditions should already be met if you followed the instructions from the chapter dealing with APT configuration (see Section 6.1, “Filling in the sources.list File”). Note however, that you’ll be downloading the source packages from the Debian version mentioned in the deb-src line. If you need another version, you may need to download it manually from a Debian mirror or from the web site. This involves fetching twoor three files (with extensions *.dsc — forDebian Source Control— *.tar.comp, and sometimes *.diff.gz or *.debian.tar.comp—comp taking one value among gz, bz2, lzma or xz depending on the compression tool in use), then run thedpkg-source -xfile.dsc command. If the *.dsc file is directly accessible at a given URL, there’s an even simpler way to fetch it all, with thedgetURL command. This command (which can be found in the devscripts package) fetches the *.dsc file at the given address, then analyzes its contents, and automatically fetches the file or files referenced within. With the -x option, the source package is even unpacked locally after download.. Themultiple binary type corresponds to a source package leading to several binary packages. A particular case,library, is useful for shared libraries, since they need to follow strict packaging rules. In a similar fashion,kernel module should be restricted to packages containing kernel modules. Finally,cdbs is a specific package build system; it is rather flexible, but it requires some amount of learning.. B.3.2. The Starter: the BIOS.