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Tightly-coupled systems tend to be used more as parallel systems (working on a single problem) and loosely-coupled ones tend to be used as distributed systems (working on many unrelated problems), although this is not always true. One famous counterexample is a project in which hundreds of computers all over the world worked together trying to factor a huge number (about 100 digits). Each computer was assigned a different range of divisors to try, and they all worked on the problem in their spare time, reporting the results back by electronic mail when they finished.. Only decentralized algorithms should be used. These algorithms generally have the following characteristics, which distinguish them from centralized algorithms:. It can also be shown that this protocol is complex and expensive. For this reason, the ISIS designers invented the CBCAST primitive, which guarantees ordered delivery only for messages that are causally related. (The ABCAST protocol just described has subsequently been replaced, but even the new one is much slower than CBCAST.) The CBCAST protocol works as follows. If a group hasn members, each process maintains a vector withn components, one per group member. Theith component of this vector is the number of the last message received in sequence from processi. The vectors are managed by the runtime system, not the user processes themselves, and are initialized to zero, as shown at the top of Fig. 2-38.. 5. What is the probability that a totally garbled ATM header will be accepted as being correct?. Even if the messenger makes it through every time, it is easy to show that Alexander and Bonaparte will never reach agreement, no matter how many acknowledgements they send. Assume that there is some protocol that terminates in a finite number of steps. Remove any extra steps at the end to get the minimum protocol that works. Some message is now the last one and it is essential to the agreement (because this is the minimum protocol). If this message fails to arrive, the war is off.. The second place to put the cache is in the kernel, as shown in Fig. 5-10(c).. Now consider a memory example. Suppose that processP1 writes a variablex.ThenP2 readsxand writesy.Here the reading ofxand the writing ofyare potentially causally related because the computation ofymay have depended on the value ofxread byP2(i.e., the value written byP1). On the other hand, if two processes spontaneously and simultaneously write two variables, these are not causally related. When there is a read followed later by a write, the two events are potentially causally related. Similarly, a read is causally related to the write that provided the data the read got. Operations that are not causally related are said to beconcurrent.. Despite these similarities, the two systems also differ in significant ways. Prolog was intended for programming artificial intelligence applications on a single processor, whereas Linda was intended for general programming on multicomputers. Prolog has a complex pattern-matching scheme involving unification and backtracking; Linda’s matching algorithm is much simpler. In Linda, a successful match removes the matching tuple from the tuple space; in Prolog it does not. Finally, a Linda process unable to locate a needed tuple blocks, which forms the basis for interprocess synchronization. In Prolog, there are no processes and programs never block.Implementation of Linda. All standard servers in Amoeba are defined by a set of stub procedures. The newer stubs are defined inAIL, theAmoeba Interface Language,although the older ones are handwritten in C. The stub procedures are generated by the AIL compiler from the stub definitions and then placed in the library so that clients can use them. In effect, the stubs define precisely what services the server provides and what their parameters are. In our discussion below, we will refer to the stubs frequently.. 8. 8.2.2. Threads. Fig. 8-11. Selected message types from the kernel to the external memory managers.. In contrast, Mach’s communication is from process to port, rather than from process to process. Furthermore, the sender and port must be on the same node. Using a network message server or the NORMA code as a proxy, communication can be extended over a network, but this indirection extracts a performance penalty. Mach does not support group communication or reliable broadcasting as basic kernel primitives.. On top of the RPC layer come the various DCE services. Not every service runs on every machine. The system administrator determines which service to run where. The standard services are the time, directory, and security, with the distributed file service on top of them, as shown. In a typical configuration, these services run only on “system server” machines and not on client workstations. A short introduction to each of these follows.. 10.4.1. DTS Time Model.