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1.4.2. True Distributed Systems.  Fig. 1-14. (a) Monolithic kernel. (b) Microkernel.. Let us focus on SEAL, due to its simplicity. It uses only one bit in the ATM header, one of the bits in thePayload type field. This bit is normally 0, but is set to 1 in the last cell of a packet. The last cell contains a trailer in the final 8 bytes. In most cases there will be some padding (with zeros) between the end of the packet and the start of the trailer. With SEAL, the destination just assembles incoming cells for each virtual circuit until it finds one with the end-of-packet bit set. Then it extracts and processes the trailer.. One implementation strategy is to just discard the message, let the client time out, and hope the server has calledreceive before the client retransmits. This approach is easy to implement, but with bad luck, the client (or more likely, the client’s kernel) may have to try several times before succeeding. Worse yet, if enough consecutive attempts fail, the client’s kernel may give up, falsely concluding that the server has crashed or that the address is invalid.. 9. Why can file caches use LRU whereas virtual memory paging algorithms cannot? Back up your arguments with approximate figures.. The complete protocol is summarized in Fig. 6-3. The first column lists the four basic events that can happen. The second one tells what a cache does in response to itsown CPU’s actions. The third one tells what happens when a cache sees (by snooping) that adifferent CPU has had a hit or miss. The only time cacheS (the snooper) must do something is when it sees that another CPU has written a word thatS has cached (a write hit from 5″s point of view). The action is forS to delete the word from its cache.. This definition is natural and obvious, although it implicitly assumes the existence of absolute global time (as in Newtonian physics) so that the determination of “most recent” is unambiguous. Uniprocessors have traditionally observed strict consistency and uniprocessor programmers have come to expect such behavior as a matter of course. A system on which the program. Writes are handled differently, as depicted in Fig. 6-27(b). In the first case, the write just happens, without a trap, since the page is mapped in read-write mode. In the second case (no other copies), the page is changed toW state and written. In the third case there are other copies, so they must first be invalidated before the write can take place.. A problem with this protocol is the potentially heavy load on the page manager, handling all the incoming requests. This problem can be reduced by having multiple page managers instead of just one. Splitting the work over multiple managers introduces a new problem, however— finding the right manager. A simple solution is to use the low-order bits of the page number as an index into a table of managers. Thus with eight page managers, all pages that end with 000 are handled by manager 0, all pages that end with 001 are handled by manager 1, and so on. A different mapping, for example by using a hash function, is also possible. The page manager uses the incoming requests not only to provide replies but also to keep track of changes in ownership. When a process says that it wants to write on a page, the manager records that process as the new owner.. Clients are unaware of the locations of the objects they use and the servers that manage these objects. A server might be running on the same machine as the client, on a different machine on the same LAN, or even on a machine thousands of kilometers away. Furthermore, although most servers run as user processes, a few low-level ones, such as the segment (i.e., memory) server and process server, run as threads in the kernel. This distinction, too, is invisible to clients. The RPC protocol for talking to user servers or kernel servers, whether local or remote, is identical in all cases. Thus a client is concerned entirely with what it wants to do, not where objects are stored and where servers run. A certain directory contains the capabilities for all the accessible file servers along with a specification of the default choice, so a user can override the default in cases where it matters. Usually, the system administrator sets up the default to be the local one.. [Картинка: any2fbimgloader216]. The following states are distinguished, but they are not mutually exclusive:. The basic communication paradigm in Chorus is message passing. During the Version 1 era, when the research was focused on multiprocessors, using shared memory as the communication paradigm was considered, but rejected as not being general enough. In this section we will discuss messages, ports, and the communication operations, concluding with a summary of the kernel calls available for communication.. 9.4.1.Messages. 1. Purpose..