Various classification schemes for multiple CPU computer systems have been proposed over the years, but none of them have really caught on and been widely adopted. Probably the most frequently cited taxonomy is Flynn’s (1972), although it is fairly rudimentary. Flynn picked two characteristics that he considered essential: the number of instruction streams and the number of data streams. A computer with a single instruction stream and a single data stream is called SISD. All traditional uniprocessor computers (i.e., those having only one CPU) fall in this category, from personal computers to large mainframes.. One particular option, remote procedure call, is important enough to warrant its own section. Remote procedure call is really a nicer way of packaging message passing, to make it more like conventional programming and easier to use. Nevertheless, it has its own peculiarities and issues, which we will also look at.. This method of exporting and importing interfaces is highly flexible. For example, it can handle multiple servers that support the same interface. The binder can spread the clients randomly over the servers to even the load if it wants to. It can also poll the servers periodically, automatically deregistering any server that fails to respond, to achieve a degree of fault tolerance. Furthermore, it can also assist in authentication. A server could specify, for example, that it only wished to be used by a specific list of users, in which case the binder would refuse to tell users not on the list about it. The binder can also verify that both client and server are using the same version of the interface.. 3.1.3. Clock Synchronization Algorithms. 4.2. SYSTEM MODELS. [Картинка: any2fbimgloader140]. If read-only pages are replicated, there is also no problem. The read-only pages are never changed, so all the copies are always identical. Only a single copy is kept of each read-write page, so inconsistencies are impossible here, too.. Fig. 7-21. Implementation of the bullet server.. It is also worth mentioning what a Mach process does not have. A process does not have a uid, gid, signal mask, root directory, working directory, or file descriptor array, all of which UNIX processes do have. All of this information is managed by the emulation package, so the kernel knows nothing at all about it.Process Management Primitives. Mach has a powerful, elaborate, and highly flexible memory management system based on paging, including features found in few other operating systems. In particular, it separates the machine-independent parts of the memory management system from the machine-dependent parts in an extremely clear and unusual way. This separation makes the memory management far more portable than in other systems. In addition, the memory management system interacts closely with the communication system, which we will discuss in the following section.. The object manager handles files, swap space, and other forms of tangible information. It may also contain the disk driver. In addition to its exception port, the object manager has a port for receiving paging requests and a port for receiving requests from local or remote process managers. When a request comes in, a thread is dispatched to handle it. Several object manager threads may be active at once.. Chorus consists of three conceptual layers: the kernel layer, the subsystems, and the user processes. The kernel layer contains the microkernel proper, as well as some kernel processes that run in kernel mode and share the microkernel’s address space. The middle layer contains the subsystems, which are used to build provide operating system support to user programs, which reside in the top layer.. Cell names can be specified either in X.500 notation or in DNS notation. Both systems are highly elaborate, but for our purposes the following brief introduction will suffice. X.500 is an international standard for naming. It was developed within the world of telephone companies to provide future telephone customers with an electronic phonebook. It can be used for naming people, computers, services, cells, or anything else needing a unique name.. CDS permits entries to be replicated to provide higher availability and better fault tolerance. The directory is the unit of replication, with an entire directory either being replicated or not. For this reason, directories are a heavier weight concept than in say, UNIX. CDS directories cannot be created and deleted from the usual programmer’s interface. Special administrative programs are used.. X.500 uses an object-oriented information model. Every item stored in an X.500 directory is an object. An object can be a country, a company, a city, a person, a cell, or a server, for example..