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The second key design issue is flexibility. It is important that the system be flexible because we are just beginning to learn about how to build distributed systems. It is likely that this process will incur many false starts and considerable backtracking. Design decisions that now seem reasonable may later prove to be wrong. The best way to avoid problems is thus to keep one’s options open.. When ATM was being developed, two factions developed within the standards committee. The Europeans wanted 32-byte cells because these had a small enough delay that echo suppressors would not be needed in most European countries. The Americans, who already had echo suppressors, wanted 64-byte cells due to their greater efficiency for data traffic.. Furthermore, having a single point of failure like this makes the system unreliable. Ideally, a distributed system should be more reliable than the individual machines. If one goes down, the rest should be able to continue to function. Having the failure of one machine (e.g., the resource allocator) bring a large number of other machines (its customers) to a grinding halt is the last thing we want. Achieving synchronization without centralization requires doing things in a different way from traditional operating systems.. Acquiring and releasing locks precisely at the moment they are needed or no longer needed can lead to inconsistency and deadlocks. Instead, most transactions that are implemented by locking use what is calledtwo-phase locking.In two-phase locking, which is illustrated in Fig. 3-21, the process first acquires all the locks it needs during thegrowing phase,then releases them during theshrinking phase.If the process refrains from updating any files until it reaches the shrinking phase, failure to acquire some lock can be dealt with simply by releasing all locks, waiting a little while, and starting all over. Furthermore, it can be proven (Eswaran et al., 1976) that if all transactions use two-phase locking, all schedules formed by interleaving them are serializable. This is why two-phase locking is widely used.. ModelCharacteristicsThreadsParallelism, blocking system callsSingle-thread processNo parallelism, blocking system callsFinite-state machineParallelism, nonblocking system calls. 6.3. CONSISTENCY MODELS. A problem with this protocol is the potentially heavy load on the page manager, handling all the incoming requests. This problem can be reduced by having multiple page managers instead of just one. Splitting the work over multiple managers introduces a new problem, however— finding the right manager. A simple solution is to use the low-order bits of the page number as an

index into a table of managers. Thus with eight page managers, all pages that end with 000 are handled by manager 0, all pages that end with 001 are handled by manager 1, and so on. A different mapping, for example by using a hash function, is also possible. The page manager uses the incoming requests not only to provide replies but also to keep track of changes in ownership. When a process says that it wants to write on a page, the manager records that process as the new owner.. Fig. 6-29. The owner of each page maintains a copyset telling which other CPUs are sharing that page. Page ownership is indicated by the double boxes.. Note that the broadcasting primitive must be reliable, meaning that lower layers automatically detect and recover from lost messages. The Amoeba system, on which Orca was developed, has such a feature. Although the algorithm will be described in detail in Chap. 7, we will summarize it here very briefly. Each message to be broadcast is sent to a special process called thesequencer,which assigns it a sequence number and then broadcasts it using the unreliable hardware broadcast. Whenever a process notices a gap in the sequence numbers, it knows that it has missed a message and takes action to recover.. Since all runtime systems make the same calculation, they come to the same conclusion. If an object currently is present on only one machine and needs to be on all, it is disseminated. If it is currently replicated and that is no longer the best choice, all machines but one discard their copy. Objects can migrate via this mechanism.. [Картинка: any2fbimgloader186]. Fig. 7-13. Two methods for doing reliable broadcasting.. 9.7.4. Memory Model.  S: Application server (does the real work). Now consider how caching works in NFS. Several machines may have the same file open at the same time. Suppose that process 1 reads part of a file and caches it. Later, process 2 writes that part of the file. The write does not affect the cache on the machine where process 1 is running. If process 1 now rereads that part of the file, it will get an obsolete value, thus violating the UNIX semantics. This is the problem that DFS was designed to solve..

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